J. Nat. Med. 75, 688-691 (2021)
Quantification of ustalic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker, in Tricholoma ustale using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
Ito,T., Nagai, H., Aoki, W., Yamada, A., Kawagishi, H., Fukaya, M., and Konishi, H.
The development of methods for the detection and qualification of toxic substances in mushrooms is a rapidly growing research area in forensic toxicology. This study aimed to determine liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions applicable to the analysis of ustalic acid (UA) in Tricholoma ustale. We used HPLC coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (Q-MS) with electrospray ionization in its negative ion mode to analyze UA. We performed HPLC separations on a C18 reversed-phase column with gradient elution using mobile phases containing water, acetonitrile, and formic acid. The MS showed that UA formed the deprotonated molecular ion [M-H]- at m/z 337, which was sufficient for the quantitative analysis of the compound. The average recovery rates of UA from four edible mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus eryngii, Lentinula edodes, and Grifola frondosa) to which 10.0 μg/g of UA was added were 108%, 104%, 108%, and 107%, respectively, and the relative standard deviation values ranged from 4.1 to 6.4%. Quantitative analysis of UA in three systematically collected individual mushrooms of T. ustale revealed 41.9-155.7 ppm in each dry material. We also explored the fragmentation behaviors of UA in triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and the proposed structures for the product ions. The data suggest that conventional Q-MS with authenticated UA would be able to identify this compound in T. ustale when used for the immediate inspection of incidences of poisoning. Confirmation of the presence of UA in T. ustale would ultimately allow for the chemotaxonomic discrimination of Tricholoma species.