Cosmetics 8, 60 (2021)
The potential of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine as a cosmetic ingredient
Aoshima, H., Ito, M., Ibuki, R. and Kawagishi, H.
In this study, we verified the effects of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH) on human epidermal cell proliferation by performing DNA microarray analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, which measures mitochondrial respiration in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells. Gene expression levels were determined by DNA microarray analysis of 177 genes involved in skin aging and disease. AOH showed a significant increase in cell viability at concentrations between 7.8 and 31.3 μg/mL and a significant decrease at concentrations above 250 μg/mL. DNA microarray analysis showed that AOH significantly increased the gene expression of CLDN1, DSC1, DSG1, and CDH1 (E-cadherin), which are involved in intercellular adhesion and skin barrier functioning. AOH also up-regulated the expression of KLK5, KLK7, and SPIMK5, which are proteases involved in stratum corneum detachment. Furthermore, AOH significantly stimulated the expression of KRT1, KRT10, TGM1, and IVL, which are considered general differentiation indicators, and that of SPRR1B, a cornified envelope component protein. AOH exerted a cell activation effect on human epidermal cells. Since AOH did not cause cytotoxicity, it was considered that the compound had no adverse effects on the skin. In addition, it was found that AOH stimulated the expression levels of genes involved in skin barrier functioning by DNA microarray analysis. Therefore, AOH has the potential for practical use as a cosmetic ingredient. This is the first report of efficacy evaluation tests performed for AOH.