Cells 11, 347 (2022).
The fairy chemical imidazole-4-carboxamide inhibits the expression of Axl, PD-L1, and PD-L2 and improves response to cisplatin in cancer
Inoue, C., Yasuma, T., D'Alessandro-Gabazza, C. N., Toda, M., D'Alessandro, V. F., Inoue, R., Fujimoto, H., Kobori, H., Takeshita, A., Nishihama, K., Okano, Y., Wu, J., Kobayashi, T., Yano, Y., Kawagishi, H., and Gabazza, E. C.
The leading cause of death worldwide is cancer. Many reports have proved the beneficial effect of mushrooms in cancer. However, the precise mechanism is not completely clear. In the present study, we focused on the medicinal properties of biomolecules released by fairy ring-forming mushrooms. Fairy chemicals generally stimulate or inhibit the growth of surrounding vegetation. In the present study, we evaluated whether fairy chemicals (2-azahypoxanthine, 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, and imidazole-4-carboxamide) exert anticancer activity by decreasing the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in melanoma cells. We used B16F10 melanoma cell lines and a melanoma xenograft model in the experiments. Treatment of melanoma xenograft with cisplatin combined with imidazole-4-carboxamide significantly decreased the tumor volume compared to untreated mice or mice treated cisplatin alone. In addition, mice treated with cisplatin and imidazole-4-carboxamide showed increased peritumoral infiltration of T cells compared to mice treated with cisplatin alone. In vitro studies showed that all fairy chemicals, including imidazole-4-carboxamide, inhibit the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to controls. Imidazole-4-carboxamide also significantly blocks the cisplatin-induced upregulation of PD-L1. These observations point to the fairy chemical imidazole-4-carboxamide as a promising coadjuvant therapy with cisplatin in patients with cancer.